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Glossaire

Glossaire

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

ACN

ACN is a Ethernet-based network protocol which was developed by ESTA (Entertainment Services and Technology Association) with the identification BSR E1.17 (BSR=British Standard Regulation, similar to German DIN designation). ACN supports a single network for the most varied information of lighting engineering, however, does not have to be restricted to « light » alone. Connections are also designed for stage, pyro, video and audio controls.

Alpha channel

The transparency information of a display is stored in the alpha channel. The alpha channel has the same colour depth as the colour channel, therefore is can for example represent 256 transparency grades with 8 bit colour depth.

ALUPAR

PAR illuminant which was presented by Osram in 2005. In this case, the back wall of the illuminant is no longer made of glass, but of aluminum. A lot of weight is saved with this. A further advantage here is that the illuminant, with placement of the rear-side glass, can no longer move in sympathy and thus the rear-side splitter protection could be dispensed with.

ANSI code

ANSI code (American National Standards Institute). Here the mechanical, electrical and photometric specifications for a manufacturing-comprehensive replacement of illuminants are guaranteed.

AWG

AWG (American Wire Gauge) is a US specification for cross-sections of copper cables.

B

Backbone

Network structure which enables the connection of further networks and terminal units and in this way creates an integrated network « in the surface ».

Beamshow

The ray of light (beam) itself first appears as a visible « structure » in case of fog and thus makes it possible to draw colour and further levels into the room.

Bi-directional

Two devices can exchange information with each other. In this case, the same device that sends can also receive. A differentiation is made between full-duplex operation, where the sending and receiving can occur simultaneously and half-duplex, where the information is sent and received only following each other.

Black Wrap

Black-coated aluminum foil for obscuring light in case of spotlights. Mostly used to cover gaps between two gate flaps light-opaque.

Blanking Plate

In order to guarantee contact protection for spotlights, a blanking plate is used. Access for the illuminant rotation must be accordingly closed off as well.

Blinder

The blinder as spotlight includes a PAR illuminant. The integration of the parabolic reflector with the illuminant to one unit, also designated as Sealed Beam (sealed beam of light) or pressed-glass lamp, has some advantages. This closed optical unit is ideally protected against dust, moisture and other influences. In addition, it is very simple to handle. Thus this compact illuminant was developed for the most varied vehicles. One of them is the ACL illuminant (Aircraft Landing Lamp). It is implemented with screwed connections for the connection of the power cables and therefore does not require a base socket, just a housing. This design type of the illuminant, which so to speak is pre-adjusted and focused, needs only to be somehow contained in a housing and then the spotlight is ready.

Break Up

Sample type in case of a Gobo. Mostly motives such as foliage, however, also abstract, in order to illuminate surfaces more interestingly.

C

Cellulose-triacetate

The base substance for the manufacture of colour films is extracted from the cellulose of wood. These thermoplastics are colorless, usable to 120° C, water-resistant, environment-neutral and are also used for low-flammability films. Was replaced in the 1960’s by polyesters.

Cookie

American designation for templates. Cut out pattern for the projection of shadow patterns.

D

Dichroism

Different colors in two directions. Layers with different refractive index in density guarantee that a part of the radiation is reflected and bent.

DMX

DMX512 (Digital MultipleX) is the standardized and most widely used digital control protocol for lighting engineering in stage and event technology. With the protocol based on the RS-485, control signals are transferred from a light board to dimmers, moving heads and effect devices.

DSH

Wire rope brackets, carrier for continuous adjustment. A steel cable is threaded through the bracket. Steel balls in the rope are pressed on and prevent the displacement of the bracket on the steel cable.

E

Burn-in

Burn-in occurs in case of first operation with new spotlights, where the paint evaporates off remaining materials as a result of the temperature in the spotlight, with the corresponding odor accessory.

Exposure times

Exposure times must be indicated in case of daylight spotlights because of the ultraviolet protection, taking into consideration the sum effect.

F

Arrest wire

Former designation of safety cables for safeguarding objects in accordance with BGV C1.

Color films

Colored films for the coloring of light are attached in front of the spotlight.

Color glass

Integrally colored glasses for the coloring of light. Not to be confused with dichroic filters which are vapor-deposited almost exclusively onto glass.

Color temperature

With the color temperature, a color impression is described. It begins in the red range and ends in the blue range, according to the spectral maximum intensity of a radiating body.

Fluter

Spotlight projecting light very widely for the illumination of large surfaces.

Full color

Designation in case of LED emitters which, when looking at the spotlight a mixed colour, can be seen and not the individual colored RGB light sources.

G

GEL

English word for colour films.

Gelatin

Former base material for the manufacture of colour films. Consists of organic base materials boiled in water (connective tissues, bones, tendons and skin). Gelatin was replaced in the 1930’s by acetates.

H

H05RN-F

Identification of harmonized lines. H05RN-F is a usual cable for normal use. However an uneven operation is defined for stage operation and thus H07 RN-F is required for spotlights.

H07 RN-F

Identification of harmonized lines. An uneven operation is assumed in event technology. And uneven operation means heavy rubber hose line H07RN-F.

Half-power width

In order to define the emission angle in case of a spotlight which does not have a hard edge, rather diffuses out softly like a soft-focus or wash, the limit must be defined. The half-power width was introduced for this purpose (US: Field Angle) and tenth scattering angle (US: Beam Angle). At the limits of these angles, the luminous intensity is half or a tenth of the maximum luminous intensity.

Haze

For a beam show on stage, the effects must often be augmented with fog-generation machines. However, since fog is strongly limited regarding a view in depth, vapor (haze) is required. Therefore a fan is often used before or after the fog-generation machine for the strong diffusion of the fog droplets in the room in order to generate a haze. Now the rays of light can reflect off the droplets back to the observer and the beam is visible thanks to the hazers.

Horizon light

Lights for the illumination of a horizon. Mostly fluter or HGL.

HTP

Highest Takes Precedent – The highest value is put out. Term for the adjustment in case of light a board. A control circuit can be controlled in the HTP or LTP mode. HTP is provided for dimmer (brightness) circuits since with bringing up of sub-masters always lights up the dimmer concerned and with bringing down the old atmosphere is restored. Thus the blinder can be used well in concerts at all times without influencing the other atmospheres. HTP circuits are also higher-level dimmed by a Grandmaster in order to darken the overall light.

I

IP Protection Type

The so-called IP Protection Type is indicated in accordance with DIN 40050. On the one hand, there are protection classes against the intrusion of foreign bodies, on the other hand there are protection classes against the intrusion of water.

Iris

The iris enables a rapid opening and closing of the light circle, as well as even smaller emission angles. Design-related, a small light spot still remains visible in case of closed iris.

J

Junction temperature

Junction designates the barrier layer, i.e. what is meant is the temperature at the location in the silicon crystal (LED) where the power dissipation is converted into heat.

K

Kettbiner

Connector – made-up word from carbine and chain-end element

L

Light finger

Closely bundled ray of light for beam shows, mostly realized with ACL Illuminant:s.

LIF code

The LIF code is assigned by the Industry Federation in London. With this, the desire is to enable manufacturing-comprehensive replacement of Illuminant:s. If the spotlight manufacturer indicates LIF code CP92 for his spotlight, every CP92 lamp can be used in this spotlight, since all mechanical, electrical and photometric specifications are identical. Regardless of whether they originate from GE, Phillips, Silvania, Osram or Usiho. Therefore one Illuminant: can be replaced trouble-free with another Illuminant: with the same LIF code.

Linescan

With the aid of LED technology a moving light is generated without mechanically moving component parts by means of wave diffraction.

LTP

Latest Takes Precedent – the last changed value is put out. Term for the adjustment in case of light a board. A control circuit can be controlled in the HTP or LTP mode. LTP is planned for control circuits such as pan and tilt, colors, effects, thus everything that is moved. With this it is possible that, unlike HTP circuits through activation of a register, the values just called up reach the DMX output, also if the values are less than the values which were just output from another register. With this, a moving light can also « rotate » back with call-up of the register, or take on the values of lower colors although other registers with higher values are still active. LTP circuits are decoupled by a Grandmaster, so that motorized movements such as pan or colors do not change in case of darkening.

M

MAN

Networks – Metropolitan Area Network – extensions to 100 km

Mesh width

Mesh width in case of a protective grill – 3 mm – from spotlight somewhere 8 mm – light opening 12 mm – in case of protective glass pane 25 mm – individual lens

MCB

Magnetic Circuit Breaker corresponds to the miniature circuit-breaker with regard to characteristics, not only thermally (e.g. bi-metal), but also due to the release of a fast current rise di/dt with the aid of the magnetic force. Translated mistakenly in Wikipedia with Miniature Circuit Device.

MFL

Medium Flood. Designation of the emission angle, usually in case of PAR spotlights.

Mural

In-part semi-transparent brochure. With special layers and corresponding painting technique, with the aid of lighting from behind or through strong lighting of in front, a single projection screen, backdrop can be used as « Night view » or as « Day view ». If the lighting is implemented from in front, the image of the painted representation of the day atmosphere appears. If the front light is dimmed and the projection screen with a resetting is lit from behind, the non-masked cutouts are lit through according to the lightly-applied painting and a very marked night atmosphere arises.

N

NicLen

Your specialist in the Dryhire segment. Do you place high demands on your productions and therefore require a professional partner with long-standing experience in material rental and production support? We are your Point of Contact Number One. We have the correct equipment and a highly motivated team with the correct know-how which can deal with the most difficult challenges. We are not satisfied until you are.

Node

New designation for a DMX512 to Ethernet or Ethernet to DMX512 converter.

NSP

Narrow Spot, designation of the transmission angle, usually at PAR spotlights.

O

ORING

Rigging utensil for stabilization.

P

PAR

PAR stands for Parabolic Aluminum Reflector. The terms PAR blower or pressed-glass lamp are usual here.

PARsafe

Base socket with double insulation.

Pinspot

If one wants to illuminate only a very small object to approx. 20 m, such as e.g. a disco flashing ball, the pinspot is exceptionally suitable for this. Its illuminant is the illuminant closest radiating with up to 2.5° and is operated at about 6 V.

Polling

Only the device that is defined as a controllers, can answer inquiries. Other devices may transmit themselves.

Polyester

Base substance for the manufacture of color films.

PUCK

Digitizer magnifying glass, also designated puck or a digitizer pen, also called a stylus, with which a click is made on the point on the drawing via the board with the cross-hairs of the puck or with the pen.

Q

QUE

Also designated Cue. Designation for a lighting effect.

R

Raylight

Raylight is the designation for a PAR spotlight, which no longer takes a PAR illuminant rather a reflector with a GY 9.5 base socket for illuminants usual in the theater, such as e.g. T25, M40, CP81, CP82 or M38. It he has a striking beam, emitted narrowly.

RCBO

The Residual Current Circuit Breaker is a combination of MCB and RCD, i.e. a miniature circuit-breaker with integrated Fi.

RCD

The Residual Current Device is the Fi miniature circuit breaker known to us. This means leakage current identification through summation of all departing and recurring currents within the connected electric circuit. Their sum is equal to zero. If a current flows off over some other path, the arising difference triggers the leakage current automatic device.

Repeater

A repeater regenerates the electric signals like a booster splitter, but with only one departure.

Restricted Output

When a device makes available a restricted output, then this means e.g. in case of RDM that all RDM data blocks were filtered out in order to output DMX512 data only. With this, downward compatibility is provided.

RJ 45

A plug connector type for Ethernet Twisted Pair.

S

Safety

Designation for a safety cable to safeguard objects in accordance with BGV C1.

Template

  1. Templates for the as-drawing generation of a lighting plan 2nd cut-out samples for the projection of shadow samples

Protective grill

The objective of the protective grills that incandescently-hot glass parts or splinters, in case of shattering of the illuminant enclosed by the spotlight, are held back and do not fall into any chinks and start a fire.

Black emitter

A black body absorbs incident light. Thus it appears black. If the body is heated up, it radiates electromagnetic waves – thus also light. The hotter the body is warmed, the more short-wavelength radiation is emitted.

Sealed Beam

Sealed ray of light. This closed optical unit is ideally protected against dust, moisture and other influences.

Shortnose

PAR spotlight type in short construction design, mostly for floor insert with second strap.

Safety cable

Safety cable to safeguard objects in accordance with BGV C1.

Silicone line

Silicone lines are necessary for the connection of lights that require an increased temperature resistance (to 180°). Practical feed-line lengths of 5 m are often used in case of a normal spotlight with rubber hose lines. On the other hand, in case of hot PAR spotlight housings, only the short approx. 1 m long supply lines are existing, even if longer supply lines were desired because of their practicability.

Softlight

Soft of radiating fluter, for lighting up or uniform illuminating without creating contours.

SR 2.0

The SR2.0 is a regulation which, among other things, describes the correct employment of hoists.

Svoboda ramp

A ramp from low-voltage, parabolic-reflector projectors switched in series, named after their inventor.

SWL

Safe Working Load – 5x safety factor against break – industrial standard.

T

Truck dimension

The width of a truck or semi-trailer is approx. 248 cm. So that Flightcases can be virtually stowed, the cases are to be adapted to the truck dimension. Case dimensions of 60 cm, 80 cm and 120 cm are usual.

Truss-spot

With the illumination of cross beams a very tight emission angle is advantageous. Thus approx. 10° is absolutely usual. An emission angle which is also found in LED emitters.

U

Unidirectional

Sends information from the source to the receiver (simplex operation) only.

Universe

Describes the unit of 512 DMX control circuits. A light board for 1024 circuits thus supports 2 DMX 512 universes.

UTP

Unshielded Twisted Pair cable with unshielded stranded pairs of e.g. J-02YS 4*2*0.51 LG.

UV protection

Discharge lamps indicate a UV content and therefore must be operated with a UV filter.

V

Vinjette

Other designation for Gobo, often in the language dialect in the south-German region.

VNSP

Very Narrow Spot. Designation of the emission angle. Usual in case of PAR spotlights.

VPLT

Association for professional light and audio engineering – industrial syndicate of interested parties

W

Floodlight

The floodlight is an indirectly-radiating fluter which emits soft light.

WFL

Wide Flood is the designation of the emission angle, usually in case of PAR spotlights.

WLL

Working Load Limit. If e.g. 2000 kg is on a shackle WLL, then in the area of the BGV C1 there is loading of 1000 kg present.

X

X Y Z

Coordinates used to describe bodies in a room.

Xenon

Illuminant, abbreviation for xenon lamps

Y

Yellow Jacket Cable Protection System

Cable covering which protects cables against power loads – available in 5-conduit as well as 3-conduit implementation.

Z

Ignition device

Discharge lamps, such as halogen metal-vapor lamps, require an ignition voltage to the generation of a conductive plasma.

 

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